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Mario Vargas Llosa

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Before the English arrived in North America, the Spanish, the Dutch, the Swedish, and the French were already on the scene. Attached to the University of Lisbon is the Museum and Laboratory of Mineralogy and Geology, founded in 1837. In the Rare Book and Special Collections Division are some four hundred early publications printed in Spanish American colonies, 1544-1820. By the middle of the 16th century, entrepreneurs recognized Brazil�s importance as a profitable leg of the sugar trade.

Pages: 128

Publisher: Bristol Classical Press (April 26, 2001)

ISBN: 1853994375

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Maudslay, and Hernan Cort�s’s Letters from Mexico, translated by Anthony Pagden.��� [12] See Hugh Thomas’s Conquest, pp. 227-250, 587. [13] See Antonio Pigafetta’s diary of the voyage.� See Urs Bitterli’s Cultures in Conflict, pp. 22-23.� That offensive bloodshed inflicted on peaceful natives was not an unusual “exploration” style then.� “First contacts” in which the native reception was hostile is evidence that previous “explorers” had probably already preyed upon the natives.� See Laurence Bergreen’s Over the Edge of the World for a recent account of Magellan’s feat.� That voyage of discovery was an exceedingly violent affair.� The first violence was inflicted on each other, with a mutiny when they were in South America, and murders, executions, torture, and maroonings were among the events.� Magellan did not inform his crew where they were going, as they would have certainly mutinied if they knew what Magellan attempted.� Events went downhill from the first mutiny (another occurred not long afterward), and bloodshed, kidnappings, and other horrors accompanied most of the voyage’s encounters with natives.� Magellan practiced coerced conversion to Christianity and came to an ignominious end when he attacked an island where he had previously burned down a village after its chief refused to convert.� The natives fought back that time and killed him while his men largely looked on, most either happy that the megalomaniac was being killed or stupefied at the senselessness of Magellan’s attack on natives who refused to convert (see pp. 284-285).� Later in the voyage, slaughtering several natives whose boat just happened to be sailing by when the crew wanted to ask directions barely merited mention, as the crew was so inured to the violence that they inflicted (see p. 337).� Spain quickly launched other expeditions to wrest the spice trade from Portugal, but they were unmitigated disasters (see pp. 410-412).� About 30 p eople died of scurvy on Magellan’s Pacific crossing, and an equal number were debilitated.� As early as 1498, European “explorers” became acquainted with scurvy and its cure, when Arab traders cured Vasco da Gama’s crew of scurvy by feeding them oranges, because the Arabs were more experienced with long voyages (see pp. 215-216).� It was first of many encounters with natives who cured the Europeans of scurvy, but over the next three centuries about two million Europeans died of scurvy on the high seas, as Europeans ignored or derided the obvious cures .� [14] See Urs Bitterli’s Cultures in Conflict, pp. 155-156.� After the invasion by the “explorer” Alvaro de Manda�a in 1568, the natives of the Solomon Islands were spared for two more centuries, until they were “rediscovered.”�� [15] See Carl Sauer’s Sixteenth Century North America, pp. 299-300. [16] Written by the essayist Montaigne, in his 1595 “On the Cannibals” in The Essays of Michel de Montaigne.� See Charles C Medieval Spain: Culture, Conflict and Coexistence Medieval Spain: Culture, Conflict and.

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