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In doing this he developed the only logical aspect, in the formal sense, of ancient Confucianism. Vogel, Jonathan. “Cartesian Skepticism and Inference to the Best Explanation.” Journal of Philosophy 87 (1990): 658–666. How, critics object, does appeal to beliefs about firmly established practices help? Modern man is thus specially a prey to psychological disorders. Significantly, he preferred political action as a specific innovative application of religious precepts carried out under the guidance of an exemplary political leader, and he eternalized the ethos of the martyrdom of Karbala, and in so doing providing an energizing rationale for the Islamic revolution.

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Being, like becoming, tends to turn into its opposite when our reason seeks to explain it. Of course many philosophers besides Kuhn challenge one or more of the presuppositions of traditional philosophy of science and reshape the debates in the post-positivist period (e.g. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1966. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1960. Animals, or, rather, the dominant monads of animals, are examples. Moral decision making is most centrally a matter of impartially adjudicating conflicts between individual rights and interests, and of seeing to it that one’s actions conform to certain universal rules of conduct.

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Kiran Gupta

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This way of understanding knowledge would mean dropping sensitivity as a requirement on knowledge, of course, since there may be no nearby possible worlds in which the target proposition is false (this is, indeed, what we would expect to be the case when it comes to the hypothesis that one is at present looking at a mechanical goldfinch). However, because Frege holds that complete propositions, like names, have objects as their references, and in particular, the truth-values the True or the False, he is able to treat predicates also as having functions as their references.

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How this basic musical understanding is to be recognized and construed are contentious questions. Accord- ing to this view, then, there is no opposite to aesthetic UGLINESS ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PHILOSOPHY 2 n d e d i t i o n • 563 eophil_U 10/28/05 3:40 PM Page 563 value, but only, as Augustine said, a “privation” of it. René Descartes came very close to the cyclical view when he wrote that matter must successively pass through all its possible forms, but since matter to him was coextensive with infinite space, the number of its configurations was inexhaustible.

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If anything, the class of e-d-continuous functions is too broad. The worry here is that human beings are enormously complicated, and it is no easy task to tell whether any par- ticular candidate for inculpable nonbelief possesses or fails to possess those motivations, attitudes, and disposi- tions that figure in the theodicies above. The similarity between switching circuits and the nets of nerve cells in the brain suggests that the brain may think by a process that could be duplicated by computers.

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Taking this as his point of departure, Lotman considers culture itself in its semiotic aspect, in the multiplicity of its communicative connections (Lotman 1970–1973). That excellent scholars have seen the inspiration of Lull’s theory of the Dignities in the Muslim hadras or in the Jewish kabbalist sefirot (both terms for the divine attributes) shows that Lull’s doctrine (although of Christian derivation) provided a reasonable basis for a dialogue with the Muslim and Jewish elites.

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John Farndon

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In other words, one must hear what one is listening to as music before one can hear it as a story in music. This, more than any other fact, allows one to subject semantic theories to empirical test. The notion that all possibilities are already given renders time meaningless. He argued that local motion involves impetus, a motive force transmitted from the mover to the moving body, which acts as an internal cause of its continued motion. argument according to imagination On March 7, 1277, Etienne Tempier, Bishop of Paris, issued an act condemning 219 propositions drawn from the works of Aristotle and his commentators (including Aquinas).

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Martyn Bramwell

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Tang and Mou were also well versed in Western philosophy. Using an expression that Aron had employed to describe narrative history in general, Sartre calls The Family Idiot a novel that is true (un roman vrai). In this sense, notes Georges Dreyfus in The Sound of Two Hands Clapping, Tsong kha pa ought to be considered a realist. Úantarakóita, an eighth-century scholar who was a key figure in the early dissemination of Buddhism in Tibet, was a late Indian Madhyamika who incorporated the logico-epistemological (pramañavada) innovations of Dignaga and, more prominently, Dharmakirti (seventh 732 • ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PHILOSOPHY 2nd edition BUDDHISM — SCHOOLS: DGE - LUGS century) into his particular brand of the middle way.

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These, however, are rendered completely sterile by the skeptical use to which Hume had to put them. William’s treatment of both is marked by a concern with the philosophical problems to which they give rise. In the second volume of the empirics of the will, The Symbolism of Evil, Ricoeur continues to examine our capacity for evil by considering the various ways humans are already guilty, sinful, and fallen.

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Two distinct projects have emerged from this effort, one critical and one reconstructive. The Flemish scholar Justus Lipsius (1547–1606) recon- structed the philosophical system of the ancient Stoics, relying on Greek as well as Latin sources, and gave impe- tus to a popular fad for Stoicism that lasted until the 1660s. The 382 • ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PHILOSOPHY 2nd edition MORAL RULES AND PRINCIPLES principle that people ought to feed their pets entails that Miguel ought to feed his cat, that Janet ought to feed her dog, that Rahul ought to feed his bird, that Jo ought to feed his ferret, and so on for as many pet owners as there are.