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Even though it was the assassination of Franz Ferdinand; the Austrian archduke, a direct cause that led to the occurrence of World War I in July 1914, the definite causes of the war were far more complicated and cannot confined to a single source.... [tags: World History, Power Struggles, World War 1] European Domination of New Worlds - European Domination of New Worlds How did Europeans conquer so much of the globe, laying waste to the indigenous civilizations and helping themselves to the natural resources of the lands they settled.

Pages: 254

Publisher: Edwin Mellen Pr (June 30, 2007)

ISBN: 0773454322

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Roman armies invaded the peninsula in 212 b.c.e. and established towns at the present-day sites of Braga, Porto, Beja, and Lisbon. Successive invasions of Germanic tribes in the fifth and sixth centuries c.e. and Moors in the eighth century c.e. added new elements to the population, particularly in the south online. Despite the fact that the Spanish and Portuguese lexicons are very similar, the languages differ significantly in terms of pronunciation Covert Gestures: Crypto-Islamic Literature as Cultural Practice in Early Modern Spain Covert Gestures: Crypto-Islamic. Willem Janszoon returned to the Netherlands in the belief that the south coast of New Guinea was joined to the land along which he coasted, and Dutch maps reproduced this error for many years to come Vicente Espinel And Marcos De Obregon: A Life And Its Literary Representation Vicente Espinel And Marcos De Obregon: A. The sixteenth century was the golden age of world exploration. In the kingdom of John III (1521-57) the university, which had been moved back to Lisbon, once more returned to Coimbra (1537) and the Colégio das Artes (School of Arts) was created. Teachers and masters were recruited from France , cited: Creation and Re-Creation: download epub Creation and Re-Creation: Experiments in. L�pez-Morillas.� Abbreviated accounts can be seen in David Duncan’s Hernando de Soto and Ian Steele’s Warpaths.� �� [36] The death ra tes of the native slaves at the gold mines on Espa�ola were about 50% per year, per Las Casas.� See Carl Sauer’s The Early Spanish Main, p. 148.� Stated another way, the life expectancy of a native in an Espa�olan gold mine was about a year, maybe less.� After the conquest of the Incas, the life expectancy of a native in the South American silver mines was about four months.� The life expectancy of a Jew in the Auschwitz rubber factory during World War II was about four months.� See David Stannard's American Holocaust, p. 89.� There was a difference in attitude, however.� The Spanish genocide of the New World natives had greed as virtually its sole motivation.� As Carl Sauer stated, the Spanish “operation was maintained by treating the natives as expendable.” (The Early Spanish Main, p. 155)� The Nazis' primary motivation was racism, with greed less obvious.� On one hand, German corporations clamored for the cheap (nearly free, the modest fees went to the Nazis) Jewish labor for its factories.� On the other, the Nazis were only too willing to provide them cheap labor, and the fewer workers who returned to the concentration camp at the end of the day, the better.� There were always more subhumans (Untermenschen) being rounded up to fill the camps.� Christopher Simpson explored the relationship between the Nazis and the German corporations in The Splendid Blond Beast.� [37] See Alonso de Zorita’s The Brief and Summary Relation of the Lords of New Spain, translated by Benjamin Keen, p. 210. [38] See Alonso de Zorita’s The Brief and Summary Relation of the Lords of New Spain, translated by Benjamin Keen, 1994 edition, pp. 206-218, and 6-10.� On p. 66, Keen noted that although epidemics have generally received most of the credit for the collapsing native population over the recent decades, recent scholarship is showing that the labor policies might have been the greatest contributing factor in the native genocide.� It paralleled what the Spanish did to the Taino in the Caribbean.� As an example, in his El Dorado in the Marshes, which was about the Spanish gold rush in the region between the Andes and Amazon, Massimo Livi Bacci concluded the book with: "In demographic terms, the Llanos suffered more from attacks by humans that from attacks by microbes." [39] See Pedro de Cieza de Le�n’s The Incas, translated by Harriet de Onis, p. 163.� See Adam Wasserman’s Two Sides of the Coin: A History of Gold, pp. 43-55. [40] See Pedro de Cieza de Le�n’s The Incas, p.62. [41] See John Hemming's The Conquest of the Incas, pp. 368-373.� See also Weatherford, Indian Givers, pp. 1-20. [42] See John Hemming's The Conquest of the Incas, pp. 367-369.� See also David Stannard's American Holocaust, pp. 90-92. [43] See William Denevan's The Native Population of the Americas in 1492, xxiv - xxv, 151-180, and David Stannard's American Holocaust, p. 91. [44] Those epidemics are summarized in Charles Gibson's The Aztecs under Spanish Rule, pp. 448-451. [45] See Bartolom� de Las Casas's A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies, p 38, 99, 103.� See Alonso de Zorita’s The Brief and Summary Relation of the Lords of New Spain, translated by Benjamin Keen, 1994 edition, p. 210.� See also David Radell’s account of the depopulation of Nicaragua by the slave trade after the Mexican conquest in William Denevan’s The Native Population of the Americas in 1492, pp. 67-76.� Decapitating collapsed porters became a standard practice by the Spanish in the New World.� In Venezuela, the load of the decapitated porter was distributed to the other natives in the chain. [46] According to Friar Juan Fern�ndez de �ngulo, cited in Bartolom� de Las Casas's A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies, p 82. [47] See Lyle McAlister's Spain & Portugal in the New World, 1492-1700, pp. 126-127. [48] See Urs Bitterli’s Cultures in Conflict, p. 22. [49] See David Stannard’s American Holocaust, p. 101.� See Carl Sauer’s Sixteenth Century North America, pp. 69-76.� [50] See Carl Sauer’s Sixteenth Century North America, pp. 69-76, and see also pp. 299-300. [51] See Carl Sauer’s The Early Spanish Main, pp. 218-277.� See David Stannard’s American Holocaust, p. 83, 218.�� [52] Pizarro arrested Balboa, and Pizarro was murdered by his own men. [53] See David Duncan’s Hernando de Soto, A Savage Quest in the Americas, pp. xxix-xxx.� Soto’s haul from the Incan plunder could have purchased more than 100 caravels of the day, which were Spain’s best sailing vessels.� In today’s value put on gold and silver, his haul would have been worth about ten million dollars, but in purchasing strength, it would have been far greater.� Building the equivalent of 100 caravels today would be immensely costly, far more than $10 million. [54] See Sauer’s Sixteenth Century North America, p. 167, 302.� One of the best accounts of Soto’s adventures is considered to be David Ewing Duncan’s Hernando de Soto, A Savage Quest in the Americas.� See his account of the Soto expedition and those depopulated lands on pp. 327-351. [55] See Herbert Priestley’s Trist�n de Luna, p. 112, for instance, and pp. 117-159.� See Charles Mann’s 1491, p. 98. [56] See David Stannard’s American Holocaust, p. 129. [57] As Lyle McAlister made the point in his Spain and Portugal in the New World, 1492-1700, pp. 163-165, encomienda was a type of repartimiento.� There were variations of the institutions, but more benign repartimientos succeeded the encomienda.� See Charles Gibson's The Aztecs Under Spanish Rule, chapter 9. [58] See Charles Gibson's The Aztecs Under Spanish Rule, p. 274 and chapter 10 in particular for what happened to the native lands in the Valley of Mexico.� [59] See Charles Gibson's The Aztecs Under Spanish Rule, p. 277. [60] See Lyle McAlister's Spain & Portugal in the New World, 1492-1700, p. 245.� [61] See Lyle McAlister's Spain & Portugal in the New World, 1492-1700, p. 240. [63] See Charles Gibson's The Aztecs Under Spanish Rule, chapter 11. [64] See Charles Gibson's The Aztecs Under Spanish Rule, pp. 329-330.� See also Ram�n Eduardo Ruiz's Triumphs and Tragedy, pp. 107-112. [65] See Charles Gibson's The Aztecs Under Spanish Rule, p. 401.� See also p. 399. [66] See a reproduction of that list in Ward Churchill's A Little Matter of Genocide, pp. 107-108. [67] See Ward Churchill's A Little Matter of Genocide, pp. 107.� They were immigrants escaping The Inquisition and the hostile social/political/economic environment of the Iberian Peninsula.� It was one of the few opportunities to create a new life.� See also Lyle McAlister’s Spain & Portugal in the New World, 1492-1700, pp. 115-116. [68] See Ronald Wright's Stolen Continents, pp. 156-157 for a reproduction of the plea the Huexotzincos made to the Emperor.� See Hugh Thomas's Conquest, p. 428, for the deal that the Tlaxcalans negotiated with Cort�s in return for their support during the conquest of Tenochtitl�n. [69] For instance, Nu�o de Guzman, a lawyer who brutally conquered what is today northwestern Mexico, was notorious for his murderous cruelty.� He was eventually tried and spent his last years as a prisoner in Spain.� Perhaps his most notorious act was hanging six chieftains who failed to sweep the path where he was going to walk.� See Ram�n Eduardo Ruiz's Triumphs and Tragedy, p. 57. [70] See Lyle McAlister's Spain & Portugal in the New World, 1492-1700, p. 186-194. [71] See Charles Gibson's The Aztecs Under Spanish Rule, pp. 220-256. [72] See Alonso de Zorita’s The Brief and Summary Relation of the Lords of New Spain, translated by Benjamin Keen, 1994 edition, pp. 118-129. [73] See Charles Gibson's The Aztecs Under Spanish Rule, p. 344. [74] See Elinor G Disability Studies and Spanish Culture: Films, Novels, the Comic and the Public Exhibition (Liverpool University Press - Representations: Health, Disability, Culture and So) Disability Studies and Spanish Culture:.

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